What's Data Center?
In information science, the word "information" is used in the sense of formatted and meaningful data through the processes of recording, storage, querying, organizing and summarizing. The data are obtained by measurement, counting, experiment, observation or research. A data does not have a meaning and function alone. After the data are collected, they become meaningful when they are grouped, sorted, summarized and processed by hand or computer and turned into information. In this way, data centers are created. Data center is an area that holds data with computer systems. These areas, also called server rooms or system rooms, have server and data belonging to businesses. Data centers are generally divided into two categories:
Private data center: It is used in the company's own service. It only serves that company and contains data.
Internet data center: It serves to third parties. The main services provided by the internet data center; is called co-location and hosting.
Electricity, mechanic and security systems change according to the importance of the data processed and stored in data centers. Based on these changes, TIA-942 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers published by the Telecommunications Industry Association, an organization accredited by ANSI (American National Standards Institute), has been identified.
It is classified into four different classifications for TIA-942 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers:
Tier 1: Data centers that serve to small businesses. Computer systems, electricity, mechanical installations are non-redundant.
Tier 2: Includes partial redundancy in energy and cooling systems. It can withstand to a 24-hour power outage using a generator.
Tier 3: Includes redundant grid circuit, energy and cooling systems, and service providers. It can withstand to a 72-hour outage.
Tier 4: All Tier 3 criteria are provided. In addition, it can withstand to a 96-hour outage. There is a 24/7 staff team. The site selection is very strict, high security measures are taken. To briefly summarize the standards set for these four levels:
Mechanical Engineering Infrastructure Design: Tasks, for example heating, ventilation and air conditioning, humidification, dehumidification, keeping the desired pressure, are carried out through mechanical systems.
Electrical Engineering Infrastructure Design: There are headings such as planning of electricity supply service, interior installation plans, uninterrupted power supplies, generator.
Technology Infrastructure Design: Includes all telecommunication cable systems in the data center. Wide area, local area and storage area networks should be connected with other building alarm and warning systems (fire, security, power, HVAC, EMS).
Environmental Control: Air conditioning systems are used to control temperature and humidity in the data center. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) recommends a temperature of 16-24℃ and a humidity of 40-55% with a dew point of 15℃ in data processing environments.
Electric Energy: Standby power consists of one or more uninterruptible power supplies, battery tanks and diesel generators.
Fire Protection: Smoke detectors are used to be informed as soon as possible in case of fire.
Security: Physical security have a great importance. Entrances except selected personnel in the data center are restricted in some sections. Secure Entry/Exit Control Systems are used.
Energy Efficiency: The most common criterion in measuring energy efficiency is power usage efficiency (PUE). This simple ratio is the total power entering the data center divided by the power consumed by IT equipment.